Significance of Bacteria in Water
Some bacteria, the pathogens, are injurious to human life and welfare. The presence of coliform bacteria can indicate there may be harmful pathogens in the water.
Consumption of or contact with water contaminated with feces of warm-blooded animals can cause a variety of illnesses. Minor gastrointestinal discomfort is probably the most common symptom. However, pathogens that may cause only minor sickness in some people may cause serious conditions or death in others, especially in the very young, old, or those with weakened immunological systems.
The Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for bacteria in drinking water is zero total coliform colonies per 100 milliliters of water as established by the EPA.
The majority of the saprophytes, when naturally occurring are beneficial. Certainly, as the foundation of the food chain, bacteria are essential to life.
Bacteria can act as anti-pollution agents. The dissolution of organic matter is the prime role of bacteria in water self-purification. Because of this function, certain types of bacteria are the work horses of biological sewage treatment plants.
Bacteria are grouped into aerobic and anaerobic classes.
Aerobic bacteria thrive in the presence of O2 (free oxygen).
Anaerobic bacteria thrive in the absence of free oxygen.
Pollution can produce a super abundance of the bacterial population.
Nutrients from sources such as organic matter and other oxygen demanding wastes, toxic chemicals, nitrogen and phosphorus can promote nuisance aquatic growths.
The decomposition of these growths then can produce undesirable conditions for aquatic life and recreational or potable uses of the water.
This decomposition of aquatic growths can consume the free oxygen. This creates conditions that are favorable for the growth of anaerobic bacteria. These anaerobic bacteria are a major factor in low oxygen conditions in lakes that produce fish kills.
Some sheath-forming bacteria are the primary nuisance type growths in rivers, lakes and ponds. A notable problem associated with this group occurs in areas subjected to organic enrichment.
The most common offenders belong to the genus sphaerotilus. These bacteria are prevalent in areas receiving raw domestic sewage, improperly stabilized paper pulp effluents or effluents containing simple sugars.
For example, the growths they produce interfere with fishing by fouling lines, clogging nets and generally creating unsightly conditions in the infested areas.
The metabolic demands of these bacteria while they are living and their decomposition after death impose a high BOD load on the stream. They can severely deplete the dissolved oxygen.
It has been suggested that large populations of sphaerotilus render the habitat noxious to animals. Hence, its presence may actively exclude desirable fish and invertebrates.
Clear lakes and streams contain little dissolved organic matter and have relatively high oxygen content. The total bacterial population of these systems is low, generally on the order of 1 to 1,000 organisms per milliliter, except for those areas in close contact with surfaces.
In lake sediment studies, no significant reduction in bacterial numbers with depth was found in-the top 5 cm. Below this a gradual reduction occurs.
The turnover of phosphate under natural conditions appears to be caused by aquatic bacteria and that bacteria may compete with algae for available inorganic phosphate.
Occasionally, bacteria that are ordinarily considered saprophytic have infected fish and caused disease.
Oxygen utilized by bacteria during decomposition may significantly deplete dissolved oxygen and result in fish kills, especially in winter with an ice cover.
End of Significance of Bacteria in Water
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